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Novalis Including Hymns to the Night

Novalis, George MacDonald, Thomas Carlyle

The Characters of Theophrastus


Shakti and Shakta

John Woodroffe

Letters on the Aesthetical Education of Man

Friedrich Schiller

A history of Italian unity

by Bolton King




The Restorat1on in Piedmont, Lombardy-Venetia, Tuscany, the Papal States, Naples, Sicily. Its character; Francis of Modena. Discontent. ' The Carbonar1. The Conciliatore. Revolut1on Of Naples: Naples, 1815-1820; revolution breaks out; constitution granted; Murattists and Carbonari; Sicily, 1815-1820; revolution of Palermo; Naples and Sicily; Florestano Pepe attacks Palermo; Austria and Naples ; Parliament repudiates Fl. Pepe's treaty; the king goes to Laybach ; the Austrian invasion. Revolut1on Of P1edmont : the Carbonari in Piedmont; Charles Albert; the army rises ; Charles Albert Regent; the revolution collapses. Movements in Modena and Romagna. Character of the revolution; weakness of feeling of Unity. Ferdinand's revenge and death. Charles Felix.

The Congress of Vienna partitioned Italy into .eight states. 1 Piedmont and the Austrian provinces divided the north; the Papal States, ^Tuscany, the petty duchies of*roIodena, t>Parma, andVLucca occupied the centre; the kingdom of 'Naples covered the southern mainland and^Sicily. Parma was given to Maria Louisa, the Austrian princess, who had been Napoleon's wife; Lucca went to another Maria Louisa, of the Spanish Bourbons who reigned at Parma before the revolution. All the other states, except the suppressed republics of VeTltcTand Genoa, returned to their old rulers. As in Spain and Germany, the princes were welcomed back not only by the friends of the old order but by the mass of the people, to whom they represented the national protest against French absorption. Even a tyrant like Ferdinand of Naples met the same welcome that greeted the better princes. Safe on their thrones, better and worse alike set themselves to undo the revolution. It was impossible. indeed, to ignore much of the reform that the French had introduced; but even where the form of the new order was preserved, the Restoration tried to kill its spirit.

Victor Emmanuel was welcomed back to Piedmont with clamorous loyalty. He had the qualities of his race; he was kindly and well-intentioned. But he hated innovation; all reform smacked to him of revolution, and now that he had, as he believed, the revolution at his feet, he hastened to sweep away its every trace. He threatened to recognise no law passed during his exile, to own no civil servant who did not figure in the directory of the year when the French drove him out. The anachronisms of the old order came back, the legal abuses, the feudal privileges, monasteries and ecclesiastical courts, the disabilities of Jews and Protestants. For the moment it was feared that civil marriages contracted under the French rule would not be recognised, that purchasers of church lands would be compelled to surrender. But the Restoration was soon shorn of its worst excesses. Victor Emmanuel found himself forced to compromise with the passive resistance of his people. The directory of 1798 was quietly dropped; provincial councils were instituted; the prerogative was less used to override the law. Officials of the French period found their way into the Ministry itself, and the accession to office of Prospero Balbo (1817), their most distinguished administrator, seemed to herald further reforms. But though some real progress was made, the Jesuits crept back, and critics complained that the government still united the worst features of the old order and of the French rule,—the obscurantism of the first, the political police and centralization of the latter.

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