BLTC Press Titles


available for Kindle at Amazon.com


The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes

A. Conan Doyle


The Secret Doctrine, Volume II Anthropogenesis

H. P. Blavatsky


Novalis Including Hymns to the Night

Novalis, George MacDonald, Thomas Carlyle


The Fairy Tale of the Green Snake and the Beautiful Lily

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Thomas Carlyle, Rudolf Steiner


Capitulations of the Ottoman empire

by United States. Dept. of State

Excerpt:

Furthermore and in conformity with that rule, no temporary protege" shall be arrested or imprisoned without the information and previous assent of the consul in whose service he is engaged; no part of the instruction [trial] should be concealed from the consul, who on his part shall not refuse his assent, for ungrounded and unacceptable motives, to the arrest and incarceration.

On the other hand, the investigation, debates, hearing of witnesses who depose gainst or in favor of the culprit as well as the compilation of the Mazbata* is a succinct history of the case, the legal points in it and the judgment], shall take place agreeably to ancient treaties in the presence of the consul or his delegate, and the tribunal shall listen with the greatest attention to the observations which are consistent with law, regulations, justice, and equity that the consul or his delegate shall present to it. In a word, you shall above all things follow equity and impartiality; this is one of your first duties in such law-suits and trials.

The secoud paragraph of the fifth article has for its object to make it known that the withdrawal of Ottoman subjects, who are under a foreign protection from their natural jurisdiction, is a condition purely temporary and exceptional; they cannot even be fully exempted from military service and other obligations of the same kind. However, the third paragraph of this same article gives to consuls certain facilities for the choice of the Yassakdjis (cavasses) whom they shall employ in their service.

The employe's of consuls who enjoy temporary protection shall be treated in other matters just as other proteges, but they cannot claim to be better treated; thus they can neither free themselves from paying the land-tax on their real estate, nor escape from the special imposts to which foreigners are subjected in accordance with agreements come to between the Sublime Porte and the powers; this is what the eleventh article explains in detail. But, abusing those rights, temporary protege's claimed to extend to certain members of their family, wife, children, or relatives, the privileges which they enjoyed, or to themselves enjoy thoBe privileges as heretofore, when their functions had already ceased. This article has for its object to put an end to such abuses. The protection of Turkish subjects, protege's, employed in consulates, ends with their service ; they shall of course be as well treated in every way as other native subjects; they shall find every desirable protection and safeguard for their persons, family, and property. The Sublime Porte will not suffer them to be molested by anybody on account of their former condition of "protege's."

The sixth and seventh articles need no explanation.

Articles 8 and 9 sanction two established principles, namely: The foreign protection of foreign interests when they are intrusted to an Ottoman subject; the impossibility for an Ottoman subject to withdraw himself from his nationality when he is in the service of a foreign subject.

The second paragraph of the eighth article establishes a wise rule, which is that of giving notice to the local authorities of the various contracts of partnership which may be executed between Ottoman and foreign subjects. It is very important to see that this rule is observed. The persous excepted from this rule are: An attorney and a dragoman, native subjects employed in the service of each foreign monastery. These two persons alone shall enjoy the privileges of the protection accorded to the employe's of consulates. In some localities consuls claimed to have a right of protection over certain Ottoman shop-keepers by founding their claim on a custom which had ended by

•The Mazbata.

passing into practice. That is evidently illegal, and the tenth article was necessary to dissipate all doubts in this respect.

The twelfth article, while laying down the principle that the privilege of protection cannot be extended to the native servants of consuls, recognizes, however, the necessity of acting in a becoming manner if the authorities have to proceed against them, and this so long as they are living in the consular house and engaged in the service of a foreign agent. It is to the tact of the Valis and other governors in the provinces that the appreciation of the spirit of this provision is left for them to apply it conformably with the high and benevolent views of the Sublime Porte.


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