BLTC Press Titles

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Through the Looking Glass

Lewis Carroll

Knowledge of Higher Worlds and its Attainment

Rudolf Steiner

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

Lewis Carroll

The Story of Doctor Dolittle

Hugh Lofting

Dogmatic Theology: The passion and exaltation of Christ

by Francis Joseph Hall


1 Cf. ch. iv. § 6, below.

* For refs. on O. Test. doctrine, see p. 1, note 1. On gentilic looking for a Saviour, see J. A. Macculloch, Compar. Theol., ch. ix; W. R. Alger, Crit. Hist. of the Doctr. of a Fut. Life, pp. 456 et seq.

* In Psalm lxxviii the history of Israel, there summarized, is described as a "parable" and as "dark sayings." Cf. Authority, Eccles. and Bibl., ch. vii. §§ 12, 14-15.

* Creation and Man, ch. x. § 5, and refs. there given. On O. T. symbols, see A. Jukes, Types of Genesis; W. S. Moule, Offerings Made Like unto the Son of God. That O. T. prophets did not fully understand their own prophecies, see 1 St. Pet. i. 10-12.

1 Hastings, Die. of Bib., s. v. "Sacrifice," A. iii; Cath. Encyc, q. v., I; W. R. Smith, Relig. of the Semites; J. A. Macculloch, op. cit., ch. viii.

1 That they were divinely ordered does not depend upon the accuracy of traditional views as to the part of Moses in their development, but upon our Lord's recognition of the authority of the law. Cf. St. Matt. v. 17-18.

3 Heb. x. 1; viii. 5; St. Matt. v. 17; Gal. iii. 24; Col. ii. 17. On O. T. sacrifices and their typology, see L. Ragg, op. cit.; A. Jukes, Law of Offerings; W. J. Gold, Sacrificial Worship; E. F. Willis, The Worship of the Old Covenant; A. E. Edersheim, The Temple; Hastings, Die. of Bib., s. v. "Sacrifice," A.; Cath. Encye., q. v., II; T. J. Crawford, pp. 254-263; L. Pullan, ch. iii; G. B. Stevens, Pt. I. ch. i.

* Levit. xvi. Cf. Heb. ix-x. A. Edersheim, op. cit., ch. xvi.

6 Levit. i; vi. 8-23. Cf. Heb. x. 5-14; viii- I_4> &. 24> Revel. v. 6; Heb. vii. 24-25. A. Edersheim, op. cit., chh. vi-vii.

8 Exod. xii. 11; Deut. xvi. 1-8. Cf. Heb. x. 10-22; 1 Cor. x. 16-21; xi. 26. A. Edersheim, op. cit., pp. 134-136, and chh. xi-xiii.

The Old Testament sacrifices could not put away sin, except in the sense of ceremonial atonement, whereby Israel was accepted by God in view of the true atonement which these sacrifices figured.2 It should be noticed, however, that recent investigation has overthrown the supposition that the word atonement, "123, as used in connection with these sacrifices, meant a covering of guilt. Rather it meant wiping clean or making bright;3 and the Israelites looked to a real cleansing of the soul from sin.4

But abuses crept in, and the prophets lifted their voices in protest against the growing habit of relying on sacrificial ritual as a substitute for personal repentance and forsaking of sin.5 But strong as their protests were,6 the whole course of Old Testament prophecy presupposes the place of sacrifice in the divine covenant, and, on the basis of purification by the Redeemer, even in the future messianic kingdom.1 The prophetic message was that salvation was to be ethical, consisting of deliverance from sin.2 Its ground was to be God's love, shown in readiness to forgive,' and the redemption which the promised Messiah was to achieve. Its conditions on man's side were to be faith and repentance, issuing in obedience.4 This was to be brought about by an inner purification and renewal from above, by a writing of the law on human hearts.5 The messianic kingdom was to be a kingdom of righteousness, extending over all the earth.6

1 For this interpretation of O. T. sacrifices, see also The Incarnation, ch. ix. §§ 6-8. On their relation to Christ's priesthood and the Eucharist, see below, ch. x. § 3.

2 Heb. x. 1-12. Cf. L. Pullan, pp. 86-91.

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