BLTC Press Titles

available for Kindle at

The Bhagavad Gita


The Characters of Theophrastus


Theory of Colours

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

The Worm Ouroboros

E. R. Eddison

Essays in modern theology and related subjects

by Unknown


* For this rendering of kur-nu-gl, see Jensen, op. at., 80, n. 2.
t Cf. &ra-li-a=karmu, "ruin," [Ethiopic kamr] ii, 35a, 44.
J ii, R, 30d, 3-5.

§ Sumerian keSda, v, R, 16, 80, with which compare the "mountain house of the dead," the keSda azag, CT, xvi, 3, 95; irkallu also in Rm. 343, obv. 15, between the words irsitum and nakbu.

|| BM 93063 in CT xii, 23, where a list of words for "under world " may be found, among them karmu, "ruin," and kabru, "grave."

H iv R, 31.

** One text mentions 600 Anunnaki, SBH, 87, 35. ft One of the seven devils.

The slayer upon the route advanced* with her.

The sudu journeyed with her unto him.

The alu f journeyed with her unto him.

Together they hastened, together they pressed forward."t

We possess but one passage in which a soul rises from hell to describe the existence of the dead. Nergal opens the earth and allows the ghost of Eabani to ascend and reveal the horrors of death to his comrade Gilgamish:

"Speak, O my comrade, speak, O my comrade,
The law of hell which thou hast seen, speak."
"If I tell thee the law of hell § which I have seen,
In . . . thou shalt sit, weep.
Truly in ... I sat, truly I wept." ||

So runs the fragmentary text concerning the only message which man has brought back from the " land of no return."

The entrance into Aralu was located in the far westf at the place where the inhabitants of Babylonia saw the sun descend into the nether sea, as they supposed. I translate here an incantation against restless souls who have wandered from hell;

* Read dib, not 6a. f One of the seven devils.

% Langdon, op. cti., 312, 22 ff.

§ irsitu, hell, here and often. || Jensen, op. oil., 263.

If Cf. the title of Nergal -'" mar-uru = ilu Sa sutl. CT xxiv, 42,91 f. MAR-TU, the ordinary Sumerian word for abubu, "storm," "deluge," is to be read mar-uru when it has this sense. [Not to be confused with the word ma-gur, "ship," ZA, xx, 451.] Although mar-uru is the form used in classical texts for abubu yet the form a-ma-uru > a-ma-ru [K 3372 + 5241 obv., 12 = CT xvii, 37] may be original. Since the ancient word for "quiver," iSpatu was i maruru, "dwelling of the storm " and the primitive notion of abubu is "flood of light," "quiver " meant really "abode of the shafts of light," mar-uru, a-mauru, a-ma-ru [dialectic ma-uru is frequent] "storm," and "quiver " [6 mar-uru later became mar-uru=i!patu] is evidently a pure Sumerian word. Now MAR-TU is the ordinary writing for Amurru, west-land, the land of the Amorites, If we are to read mar-uru then the inference must be made that Amurru, Amorite, is pure Sumerian meaning, "land of storm," hence westland. We have direct evidence for reading MAR-TU as mar-uru, when it means West, Amoria, since in CT xxiv, 40, 48, Adad, god of the west-land, usually written **- MAR-TU, is explained by abubu. The reading mar-tu for West is, therefore, definitely excluded. Sutu, already known to be a Syrian province (iv R, 38, 22 f., su-ri-ki and su-ti-um-ki) is here written with the Sumerian word for West, more especially Amoria. Nergal, therefore, is god of the west-land, i.e., Sutium.

it not only contains evidence for placing the entrance to hell in the west but is one of the most useful sources for studying Babylonian conceptions of the spiritual world.

"Mighty sage of the universe, Marduk, raging one, [who makest glad] * Egurra

... from the RetroRead library, using Google Book Search, and download any of the books already converted to Kindle format.

Browse the 100 most recent additions to the RetroRead library

Browse the library alphabetically by title

Make books:

Login or register to convert Google epubs to Kindle ebooks



Lost your password?

Not a member yet? Register here, and convert any Google epub you wish

Powerd by Calibre powered by calibre