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Novalis Including Hymns to the Night

Novalis, George MacDonald, Thomas Carlyle

The Pictorial Key to the Tarot

Arthur Edward Waite

The Art of Worldly Wisdom

Baltasar Gracian

Tao Te Ching

Lao Tzu, James Legge (trans.)

Exercises in French syntax and composition, with notes and vocabulary

by Jeanne M. Bouvet


a. When an adjective precedes the noun.* If it follows the noun, du, de la, de 1', or des is used.

b. After adverbs of quantity, such as beaucoup = much or many; peu = little or few; plus — more; moins = less or fewer; assez = enough; trop = too much, too many; tant = so much, so many; autant = as much, as many, etc.

c. After verbs in the negative. Affirmative English verbs, followed by the indefinite adjective no and a noun, are translated into French by the negative form of the verb followed by de or d\ Ex.: we have no friends here = nous n'avons pas d'amis ici.

d. When a noun is limited by an adjective phrase composed of de and another noun; un morceau de pain = a piece of bread; un bracelet d'or = a gold bracelet; un lit de fer = an iron bed. Observe that, in many cases, the descriptive phrase may be

• In a decree, dated July 31, 1900, the Minister of Public Instruction in France authorizes the use of du, de la, de I', des, instead of de or d', before nouns preceded by adjectives.


converted into a single English noun, which then performs the office of an adjective.

Note. — In the following exercise, as indeed in every case, the student should bear in mind that some or any must not only be supplied but repeated in the French translation, wherever these words would not be out of place in English.

Exercise 1.

1 i. Racine had1 genius. 2. Numerous* armies invaded* Greece.4 3. Madame de Sdvigne' wrote5 charming6 letters. 4. Why do you live alone here? Have you no relatives? no7 friends? no children? 5. Many people8 sacrifice9 the present to the future. 6. Racine and Corneille wrote10 admirable6 tragedies. 7. So much goodness reveals" a noble12 soul. 8. I prefer13 your cloth dress to14 your silk one.15 9. I will not make you16 any apologies. 10. Alexander conquered3 immenses countries. 11. Racine has less sublimity; Corneille possesses more depth. 12. I know17 few people18 capable of sacrificing19 their interests. 13. Enough wretchedness torments the people.30 14. The queen wore1 a magnificent necklace of diamonds. 15. Bossuefs21 eloquence has much loftiness; that22 of Fenelon has much grace,23 but it has not as much force.24 16. Venice has incomparable2 marvels; her25 ancient splendor has left ineffaceable2 memories. 17. Too , much rest lessens the vigor of the body. 18. We ate5 a piece of cake and26 drank5 a glass of wine. 19. There is27 never any oil in your lamp. 20. Little2 causes have often28 produced great2 effects.

1 use imperfect. 2 all adjectives in this exercise should precede the noun unless otherwise indicated; turn 'some numerous armies.' 8 past definite. 4 requires definite article. 6 past indefinite. 8 place after the noun. 7 do not repeat pas. 8 monde, m. 9 singular. 10 past indefinite of composer. 11 annoncer. 12 belle. 18 aimer mieux. 14 que. 16 repeat the noun. 18 place before the verb. 17 connattre. 18 gens, m. pi. 18 infinitive present. * peuple, m. 31'the eloquence

of.' 22 celle. 23 douceur, f. 24 energie, f. 25 Job. 26 repeat the subject. 27 put «' before the verb and replace pas by jamais. 28 place after participle.

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