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Tao Te Ching

Lao Tzu, James Legge (trans.)


My Man Jeeves

P. G. Wodehouse


Theory of Colours

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe


The Revolt of the Netherlands

Friedrich Schiller


Geography of the Bible

by James Waddel Alexander

Excerpt:

II. Gomer. The Cimmerians probably took their name from Gomer. They resided north of the Black Sea, in the country now called Krim, and upon the rivers Don and Danube. From the same origin came the nations who were known under the various names of Cimbri, Umbri, and Cambri, in the northern and central parts of Europe. Hence arose the Gauls, Celts, and Gaels. They are mentioned among the northern nations, which should accompany Gog in his conquests ; (Ezek. xxxviii. 6.) Gomer and all his bands.

III. Ashkenaz. Except in the list of the families of nations, (Gen. x.) we find Ashkenaz only once named in the Bible, (Jer. li. 27.) and then in connexion with Ararat and Minni, provinces of Armenia. The utmost which we are able to say of this nation is, that it was near mount Caucasus, east and south-east of the Black Sea.

IV. Gog and Magog. Gog is generally supposed to be the name of the people, and Magog the name of the country, which comprehended the northern parts of Armenia, the space between the Black Sea and the Caspian, and the borders of Scythia. (Gen. x. 2, Ezek. xxxviii. 2.) We shall not attempt to answer the question concerning the Gog and Magog of the Revelation, (xx. 7—9,) which belongs to the interpretation of prophecy.

IV. Meshech and Tubal, are named in connexion with Magog, (Ezek. xxxviii. 2,) aDd are almost always united in the scriptural notices of them. (Ezek. xxvii. 13, xxxii. 26, xxxix. 1.) In like manner the Greek writers place the Moschi and Tibareni in conjunction: these are probably the same people. They inhabited the regions south of the chain of Caucasus, from the S. E. part of the Black Sea to the river Aras, or Araxes. They traded with Tyre in persons of men, and vessels of brass: (Ezek. xxvii. 13;) the Circassians, who inhabit this part of the world, have been noted, for ages, as slave-dealers ; while travellers inform us that copper is abundant in mount Caucasus. When the Psalmist speaks (Ps. cxx. 5,) of Mesech and Kedar, he may be understood to signify northern and southern barbarians.

VI. Togarmah, Ararat, and Minni. These names are here set in conjunction, because they denote a single country, Armenia.Togarmah is mentioned with Gomer, (Gen. x. 3, Ezek. xxxviii. 5,) and also with Meshech and Tubal, (Ezek. xxvii. \4.) The history and traditions of the Armenians represent them as the descendants of Togarmah. At the same time it should be mentioned that Bochart and Wells suppose Togarmah to be Cappadocia.

We read not only of mount Ararat; but of the kingdom of Ararat; (Jer. li. 27. Isa. xxxvii. 38, margin; 2 Kingsxix. 37, margin;) this was in the north-eastern part of Armenia.

Minni, (Jer. li. 27,) seems to be the ancient Minyas, near to mount Ararat, and either a part of Armenia, or an adjacent district. Under this head it will be proper to consider

ARMENIA.

The boundaries of Armenia may be thus stated : Colchis and Iberia on the north ; Media on the east; Mesopotamia on the south; Pontus and Cappadocia on the west; and the Euphrates and Syria on the S. west. From the earliest times, this country has been divided into two parts, Greater and Less Armenia. The latter is now a part of Natolia, lying upon the western side of the Euphrates. It includes portions of Cappadocia, Cilicia, and Pontus,—or the modern Caramania, Merash, and Siva, and is under Turkish government. Greater Armenia is on the east of the Euphrates, separated by mount Taurus from Mesopotamia and Kurdistan, (or ancient Assyria,) and contains fifteen provinces, nine of which belong to Persia. Armenia has been considered by travellers one of the most beautiful and fertile countries of the earth.

Ararat was that part of Persian Armenia in which is found the modern Erivan. (Lon. 44° 10' E. lat. 40° 20' N.) Mount Ararat, upon which the ark rested, is unanimously agreed to be Mount Masis, called by the Turks Agridah. in the north-east part of Armenia. It has two peaks called the Greater and Lesser Ararat. The discoveries of modern travellers have placed it beyond a doubt that this is the true Mount Ararat. Since the days of Noah, it is probable that no human being has reached its summit: " the impossibility of reaching its extreme summit," says Mr. Morier, " was decided some years ago, by the Pasha of Beyazid. He offered large rewards to any one who should reach the top; but although many Curds, who live at its base, have attempted it, all have been equally unsuccessful." These heights, the snow and ice of which are sometimes visible nearly 200 miles off, are at least 15,000 feet in altitude.*


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