BLTC Press Titles


available for Kindle at Amazon.com


The Bhagavad Gita

Anonymous


Leaves of Grass

Walt Whitman


Further Adventures of an Irish R. M.

Edith Somerville and Martin Ross


Shakti and Shakta

John Woodroffe


Hincmar

by Guy Carleton Lee

Excerpt:

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HINCMAR: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY if - I (J
OF THE REVOLUTION IN THE ORGAN-

IZATION OF THE CHURCH IN
THE NINTH CENTURY

By

GUY CARLETON LEE
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.

A Dissertation Presented to the Board of University Studies of

the Johns Hopkins University for the Degree

of Doctor of Philosophy

[Reprinted from Vol. VIII., of the Papers of the American Society of Church

History.]

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HINCMAR: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE REVOLUTION IN THE ORGANIZATION OF THE CHURCH OF THE NINTH CENTURY.

HINCMAR: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
OF THE REVOLUTION IN THE ORGANIZA-
TION OF THE CHURCH IN THE NINTH CEN-
TURY.1

By GUY CARLETON LEE,
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.

In a consideration of the ninth century we realize that the Frankish world was bound to the old Roman world by more potent ties than those of memory. As we study the so- called superficial continuations of Roman institutions we discover that they are not dead and worthless relics, but living things. They grow even as we examine them. They strike deep roots into the very heart of Frankish institutions.

In the Frankish nation there was a force peculiarly Teutonic. This wrought upon and changed the very nature of the Roman survivals. So powerful was the detrusion, that tribes and peoples, crushed upon each other, were fused and melted together by the very pressure of their impact. Localism was eliminated by the same power that forced extraneous elements into homogeneity with the Teutonic mass.

From this conflict of forces came a new nation, animated by a new spirit, an entirely new spirit through which the world was to be regenerated—the free spirit which reposes on itself—the absolute self-determination of subjectivity. To this self-involved subjectivity, the corresponding objec-

1 This monograph is a condensation of a somewhat larger work on the same subject.

[Reprinted from Vol. VIII., American Society of Church History.]

347157

J

tivity stands opposed as absolutely alien. The distinction or antithesis which is evolved from these principles is that of church and state.1

The intellectual and political movements of the ninth century were to such a degree the natural and almost necessary expression and accompaniment of the adolescence of a great nation, that a parallel is clearly and easily seen between the intellectual attitude of Paschasius Radbertus and others in connection with the controversies concerning the doctrine of transubstantiation and that movement in which the so-called Pseudo-Isidore is so prominently identified.1

The metamorphosis of a more or less hazy and ambiguous belief in the real presence of Christ in the heart of a believer into a belief in a real presence in the host was a strict counterpart to the transformation of the moral authority of the universal Christian consciousness into a legal institution.' The indefinite, hazy, and ineffectual was obliged by the philosophy of history to become definite and active. One might have been satisfactory for mystic contemplation, the other was needed for real life work.

Under the iron hand of Charles the Great a Frankish empire was created. A sense of Teutonic nationality found expression. The church, too, grew in strength and influence, yet this growth was not normal; it was, if we may speak biologically, a metabolism in the molecular structure, a metensomatosis by which the very nature of the church was changed. The church of Charles the Great was not so much a Roman as a Frankish church. It had by katabolism become a national church, co-existent with the conception of a distinct political entity.4


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