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Knowledge of Higher Worlds and its Attainment

Rudolf Steiner

The Characters of Theophrastus


The Story of Doctor Dolittle

Hugh Lofting

Through the Looking Glass

Lewis Carroll

History of the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic, of Spain

by William Hickling Prescott


* Peter Martyr, Opus Epist. lib. 14, epist. 218. *f* See Part II. Chapter 3 of this History. Ferdinand, it seems, entertained the thought of visiting Italy in person. This appears from a letter, or rather an elaborate memorial of Garcilasso de la Vega, urging various considerations to dissuade his master from this step. In the course of it he lays open the policy and relative strength of the Italian states, half of whom, at least, he regards as in the interests of France. At the same time he advises the king to carry the war across his own borders into the French territory, and thus, by compelling Louis to withdraw his forces, in part, from Italy, cripple his operations in that country. The letter is full of the suggestions of a shrewd policy, but shows that the writer knew much more of Italian politics than of what was then passing in the cabinets of Paris and Madrid.—Carta de Garcilasso de la Vega. Toledo, 25 de Agosto, 1500. MS.

councils to the interests of Ferdinand.* The suggestions of the Spanish envoy received additional weight from the report of a considerable armament then equipping in the port of Malaga. Its ostensible purpose was to co-operate with the Venetians in the defence of their possessions in the Levant. Its main object, however, was to cover the coasts of Sicily in any event from the French, and to afford means for prompt action on any point where circumstances might require it. The fleet consisted of about sixty sail, large and small, and carried forces amounting to six hundred horse and four thousand foot, picked men, many of them drawn from the hardy regions of the north, which had been taxed least severely in the Moorish wars.t

The command of the whole was intrusted to the Great Captain, Gonsalvo of Cordova, who, since his return home, had fully sustained the high reputation which his brilliant military talents had acquired for him abroad. Numerous volunteers, comprehending the noblest of the young chivalry of Spain, pressed forward to serve under the banner of this accomplished and popular chieftain. Among them may be particularly noticed Diego de Mendoza, son of the grand cardinal, Pedro de la Paz,]: Gonzalo Pizarro, father of the

* According to Zurita, Ferdinand secured the services of Guillaume de Poictiers, lord of Clerieux and governor of Paris, by the promise of the city of Cotron, mortgaged to him in Italy.—(Hist, del Rey Hernando, lib. 3, cap. 40.) Comines calls the same nobleman "a good sort of a man, qui aisement croit, et pour especial tell personnages," meaning king Ferdinand. —Comines, Memoires, liv. 8, chap. 23.

+ Bembo, Istoria Viniziana, torn. iii. lib. 5, p. 324.—Ulloa, Vita et Fatti dell' Invitissimo Imperatore Carlo V. (Venetia, 1606,) fol. 2.— Mariana, Hist, de Espana, torn. ii. lib. 27, cap. 7.—Giovio, Vitas Must. Virorum, torn. i. p. 226.—Zurita, Hist, del Rey Hernando, torn. i. lib. 4, cap. 11.—Abarca, Reyes de Aragon, torn. ii. rey 30, cap. 10, sec. 13.

X This cavalier, one of the most valiant captains in the army, was so diminutive in size, that, when mounted, he seemed almost lost in the high dcmipeak war-saddle then in vogue; which led a wag, according to Brancelebrated adventurer of Peru, and Diego de Paredes, whose personal prowess and feats of extravagant daring furnished many an incredible legend for chronicle and romance. With this gallant armament the Great Captain weighed anchor in the port of Malaga, in May 1500, designing to touch at Sicily before proceeding against the Turks.*

Meanwhile, the negotiations between France and Spain, respecting Naples, were brought to a close, by a treaty for the equal partition of that kingdom between the two powers, ratified at Granada, November 11th, 1500. This extraordinary document, after enlarging on the unmixed evils flowing from war, and the obligation on all Christians to preserve inviolate the blessed peace bequeathed them by the Saviour, proceeds to state that no other prince, save the kings of France and Aragon, can pretend to a title to the throne of Naples; and as King Frederic, its present occupant, has seen fit to endanger the safety of all Christendom by bringing on it its bitterest enemy the Turks, the contracting parties, in order to rescue it from this imminent peril, and preserve inviolate the bond of peace, agree to take possession of his kingdom and divide it between them. It is then provided, that the northern portion, comprehending the Terra di Lavoro and Abruzzo, be assigned to France, with the title of King of Naples and Jerusalem; and the southern, consisting of Apulia and Calabria, with the title of Duke of those provinces, to Spain. The dogana, an important duty levied on the flocks of the Capitanate, was to be collected by the officers of the Spanish government, and divided equally with France. Lastly, any inequality between the respective

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