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The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes

A. Conan Doyle

The Souls of Black Folk

W. E. B. DuBois

The Story of Doctor Dolittle

Hugh Lofting

The Art of Worldly Wisdom

Baltasar Gracian

In unnamed Wisconsin

by John Nelson Davidson


1 Though not the discoverer of the adjacent bay, Menard gave it St. Theresa's name. We have here a suggestion, first recognized by the late eminent Roman Catholic historian J. G. Shea, that dates of discovery can, in some cases, be determined by the names that were given by the early explorers. This principle must, of course, be applied with caution. Thus of the Arched Rock, Lake Superior, Rilisson writes: " I gave it the name of the portal of St. Peter, because my name is so called, and that I was tha first Christian who ever saw it."

St. Theresa is known to some by the fact that an account of her vision of hell has been published under the sanction of Roman Catholic dignitaries. Many "visions" of some of the saints suggest that the subjects thereof would, with a slightly different religious training, have made first-class "spirit mediums." We shall not understand men like Menard and his compeers unless we remember that narratives of the sort indicated formed no small part of their reading and were regarded by them as almost on a parity with divine revelation. The "lesser devotion" paid to the saints was not only a matter of religious observance, it was a dictate of prudence as well. For their aid was almost indispensable in contests with Satan, whose dominion the missionaries were invading, whose subjects they were endeavoring to wrest from him, and who might be expected to appear in tangible presence under almost any guise, in almost any place and at almost any time.

2 The spelling given above is that used by the Bureau of Ethnology (Smithsonian Institution). For the entire Algonquian (Algonquin, Algonkin) family Schoolcraft suggested the term "Algics." Using this name, thus wrote W. W. Warren, of whom we have already heard, a descendant of a Mayflower pilgrim, as well as of Ojibways:

"The red men who first greeted our pilgrim fathers, and who are so vitally connected with their early history, were Algics. The people who treated with good William Penn [with whom good William Penn treated] for the site of the present city of Philadelphia, and who named him' me guon,' meaning, in the Ojibway language.' a pen' or ' a feather,' were of the Algic stock. The tribe over whom Pow-hat-tan (signifying 'a dream') ruled as chief belonged to this wide-spread family." ", \

But .1. Hammond Trumbull says that Powhat-hanne, or Powhau't-hanne, denotes "falls in a stream." Also that the famous chief and his people derived their name from the falls in the James river, near Richmond, Virginia.

some1 of whose number as known the next winter by Radisson called forth from him this fierce invective: "They are the coursedest, unablest, the most unfamous & cowardliest people that I have seene amongst fower score nations that I have frequented." Of Menard's success or, rather, want of success, among such a people let the "Jesuit Relations" speak:

"During the winter that he spent with the Outaouak, he started a church among these savages, a very small one indeed but very precious, for it cost him much sweat and many tears. Hence it seemed to be composed only of predestined souls, the greatest part of whom were dying infants whom he was obliged to baptize stealthily, for their parents used to conceal them when he would enter their wigwams, having the old erroneous notion of the Hurons that baptism caused their deaths.2 Among the adults he found two old men whom grace had prepared for Christianity." Here follows an account of them antl of some good women who also became Christians. "Excepting these elect, the Father, amongst the rest of these barbarians, found nothing but opposition to the faith, on account of their great brutality and infamous polygamy. Tiie little hope he had of converting these people, plunged in all sorts of vices, made him resolve to undertake a new journey of a hundred leagues in order to instruct a tribe of poor Hurons, whom the Iroquois had caused to fly to that end of the world. Among these Hurons there were a great many old Christians who asked most urgently for the Father. They promised that at his arrival at their place all the rest of their countrymen would embrace the faith. But before starting to this distant country, the Father begged three young Frenchmen of his flock to go ahead to reconnoiter." These young men, "after undergoing many hardships, finally arrived at the village of this poor, agonizing tribe. Entering the wigwams they found but living skeletons, so feeble that they could scarcely stir and stand on their feet." Hiving returned, Menard's messengers sought to persuade the old missionary not to attempt the difficult and dangerous journey. He answered: "This is the most beautiful occasion to show to angels and men that I love my Creator more than the life which

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