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The Pictorial Key to the Tarot

Arthur Edward Waite


The Revolt of the Netherlands

Friedrich Schiller


The Art of Worldly Wisdom

Baltasar Gracian


Letters on the Aesthetical Education of Man

Friedrich Schiller


John Calvin, the organiser of reformed Protestantism, 1509-1564

by Williston Walker

Excerpt:

Four years later, the late Professor Philip Schaff gave, as the principal content of the seventh volume of his History of the Christian Church, a careful sketch of Calvin's career and significance, marked by his well-known merits and limitations.1

his time free, a system of tyranny. The chief works of the elder Galiffe were, Materiaux pour Vhistoire de Geneve, Geneva, 1829; and Notices genealogiques sur les jamilles genevoises, Ibid., 1836. Of the younger, Quelques pages d' histoire exacte (trials of Pen-in and Maigret), in the Mimoires de VInstilut national genevois, for 1862; and Nouvelles pages d'histoire exacte (trial of Ameaux), Ibid., for 1863. They represent, in modern times, the opposition of the old-Genevan families to Calvin.

1 The writer, while recognising Kampschulte's predisposition to severity of judgment, believes Doumergue's criticism of him too unfavourable (ii. 717-721); and even Doumergue declares: "For Catholic historians, it is certain that Kampschulte and Cornelius have given proof, in regard to Cafvin, of a remarkable impartiality"; though regarding that "impartiality" as inadequate.

"Published at Geneva. Roget intended to carry his work further, but was interrupted by death on September 29, 1883.

In his La thiocratie a Geneve au temps de Calvin, published at Geneva in 1897, a Genevan pastor and scholar, Rev. Dr. Eugene Choisy, has presented a brief but very valuable discussion of the principles which underlay Calvin's Genevan policy.

A cyclopaedia article of more than usual merit was that of the late Professor Rudolf Stahelin in the third (Albert Hauck's) edition of the Realencyklopddie fiir protestantische Theologie und Kirche*

Calvin's conversion, earliest theological writings, and indebtedness to previous reformers have been subjected to searching and rewarding investigation by a pastor of Halle, August Lang.3 The discussion has been continued in papers of high importance by Professor Karl Muller of Tubingen,4 and Professor Paul Wernle of Basel.s

In 1899, Kampschulte's friend and fellow Old-Catholic, the late Professor Carl Adolf Cornelius6 of Munich, gathered the studies which he had made preparatory to the intended completion of Kampschulte's unfinished work,

1 New York, 1892.

'III. 654-683, Leipzig, 1897. He died March 13, 1900.

3 Die altesten theologischen Arbeiten Calvins, in the Neue Jahrbiicher fiir deutsche Theologie, for 1893, Bonn, pp. 273-300; Die Bekehrung Johannes Calvins, in the Studien zur Geschichte der Theologie und Kirche, Leipzig, 1897, i. 1-57; Der Evangelienkommentar Martin Butzers, Leipzig, 1900. He has also written on Calvin's household life, and relations to Luther and Melanchthon.

* Calvins Bekehrung, in Nachrichten von der konigl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, for 1905, pp. 188-255.

s Noch einmal die Bekehrung Calvins, in the Zeitschrift fiir Kirchengeschichte, xxvii. 84-99 (1906).

6 Died February 10, 1903.

with other monographs, into a volume entitled Historische Arbeiten, vornehmlich zur Reformationszeit,1 in which, quite in the spirit of that scholar, with similar thoroughness and command of accessible sources, he discussed Calvin's journey to Italy and his Genevan work to 1548. On this period Cornelius is indispensable to the student.2

The year of the publication of Cornelius's discussions, 1899, witnessed the issue of the first volume of the remarkable biographical undertaking which is to constitute a monument not only to the Genevan reformer, but to its laborious author, Professor Emile Doumergue, of the Theological Faculty of Montauban. Of the five volumes proposed, three have appeared,—the second in 1902 and the third in the closing weeks of 1905. The first carries Calvin to the publication of the Institutes, the second to his recall to Geneva, while the third is devoted to a description of the city and of his home and surroundings. No such elaborate biography has been planned of any other leader of the Reformation as this entitled Jean Calvin: les hommes et les choses de son temps;3 and its beauty and interest is enhanced not merely by abundant photographic reproductions, but by drawings of high artistic merit by Henri Armand-Delille. In elaborateness of discussion, in amplitude of treatment, it leaves little to be desired. The most conspicuous criticism to be passed upon it is that it is everywhere a defence of its subject. Professor Doumergue is above all a worshipper of his hero, but a very painstaking worshipper, who


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