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Vanity Fair

William Thackery

Some Experiences of an Irish R. M.

Edith Somerville and Martin Ross

Esoteric Buddhism

A. P. Sinnett

The Bhagavad Gita


Knight-service in Normandy in the eleventh century

by Charles Homer Haskins


Episcopus Baiocensis, servicium xx militum, et ad suum servicium cxx milites.

Episcopus Sagiensis, servicium sex militum.

Episcopus Lexoviensis, servicium xx militum, et ad suum servicium XXX milites et terciam partem unius militis, et praeter haec habet x milites in banleuca Lexoviensi, qui remanent ad custodiendam civitatem donec retrobannus summoneatur, et tunc ibunt cum propriis expensis

the cartulary of Préaux (Archives of the Eure), nos. 429, 439; and the grant to Jumièges by Gislebertus of ' benefitium Alsvillam scilicet quam a predicto meo domino militans obtineo' (Original in the Archives of the Seine-Inférieure at Rouen).

The statements of the chroniclers are in themselves of doubtful value, but taken in connexion with the passages in the charters they offer supplementary evidence of some interest. Thus Ordericus (ii. 397) says that Fule, dean of Evreux, ' ex paterna hereditate feudum militis possedit,' and mentions the grant to St. Evroul by another Fule of 'archidiaconatum quoque quem in feudo ab antecessoribus suis de archiepiscopo Eotomagensi tenebat ' (ii. 132). In 1056 or 1057 a judgment was rendered 'in curia S. Ebrulfi ' depriving one of the abbey's knights of ' omnem feudum quern ipse de S. Ebrulfo tenebat' (ii. 60)—a passage of considerable importance with reference to the existence of feudal jurisdictions in Normandy before 1066. The dealings of St. Evroul with Baudri de Bocquencé (ii. 74-5) are also interesting in relation to feudal justice and service, fealty, and castle guard. Feudal relations are also mentioned in the account of the early bishops of Coutances (Gallia Christiana, xi. instr. 218) and in the Vita altera Herluini (Mabillon, Acta 88. Ordinis S. Benedicti, vi. 2, 356).

« Feudal England, p. 298.

1 Historiens de France, xxiii. 693-9; Red Book of the Exchequer, 624-45. Those who made no returns are mentioned at the end; the list includes the archbishop of Rouen and the bishop of Evreux, but no abbot.

episcopi. Idem habet ii milites de dono regis Henrici filii Matildis, scilicet in Mesnilio Odonis et in Corbespina.

Abbas Fiscannensis, servicium x militum, et ad suum servicium xiii milites et tres partes unius militis.

Abbas Bernaii, ad suum servicium ii milites.

Abbas Gemeticensis, servicium iii militum, et praeter hoc ad suum servicium i militem in Esmalevilla, quem comes Hugo le Bigot ei difforciat.

Abbas Montis Bothomagi, servicium vi militum et tres partes unius militis.

Abbas de Monte Sancti Michaelis, servicium vi militum in Abrincensi et Costanciensi et i militem in Baiocassino, quern faciunt va vas sores nisi fuerint in exercitum.

Abbas Cadomensis, servicium i militis, de feodo de Taillebois.

Abbas Sancti Ebrulfi, servicium ii militum, et praeter hoc feodum Bogeri Gulafre, quod Guillelmus Paganelli habet de rege in vadio, unde difforciat servicium abbatis.

Abbas Sancti Wandregisili, servicium iiiior militum.

Abbas Sancti Audoeni de Bothomago, servicium vi militum, et ad suum servicium quatuordecim milites.

Abbas de Bernaio habet de feodo suo ii milites.

Abas Sancti Dionysii, servicium i militis, de feodo Bernevallis.

Abbatissa de Mosterviller, servicium iii militum, et ad suum servicium v milites et terciam partem unius militis.

The scrvitia debita of this list are smaller than those of the English bishops and abbots, and, perhaps for this reason, the group of five knights is not quite so much in evidence, but the most striking thing is the small number of monastic foundations which owe military service to the duke. If we deduct St. Denis, which is not Norman, and St. Etienne at Caen, which is evidently assessed not as a barony but for a fief which has come into its possession,6 there remain only nine monastic baronies in a land where religious houses were numerous and closely subjected to the duke's control.7 Upon what principle had these nine been selected? Not, as we might expect, because they were the monasteries which had been founded by the dukes, for La Trinité-du-Mont and St. Evroul were established by the duke's vassals, and such important ducal foundations as Cérisy, Caen, and Montebourg are not included. The explanation must be sought in some qther direction, and the most natural one is that of age. None of the nine was established after 1050; except St. Evroul, all are older than the Conqueror's accession. Jumièges, Fécamp, Mont St. Michel, St. Ouen, and St. Wandrille were restored under the early dukes; Bernai goes back to the

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