BLTC Press Titles

available for Kindle at

The Picture of Dorian Gray

Oscar Wilde

The Diplomatic Background of the War

Charles Seymour

Vanity Fair

William Thackery

Theory of Colours

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Lowney's cook book

by Maria Willett Howard


Boiling point is the temperature at which a fluid is converted into vapor, with the phenomenon of ebullition. The boiling point of water is 212 degrees Fahrenheit. In cooking, the term boiling means the cooking of food in a boiling liquid, and water is the liquid generally used. Rapidly boiling water is no hotter than when the agitation is less, but in some cases, as in the boiling of rice, violently boiling water is recommended for the purpose of keeping the grains of rice separated. The boiling point of water once reached can be held with a moderate amount of heat.

Food is generally boiled by putting immediately into boiling water. This sears the surface, and keeps in the juices; but if the water is to be used for soups, gravies, and so forth, the food is put into cold water and brought slowly to the boiling point. Salt is added to the boiling water ordinarily when cooking food, as it tends to keep the flavor in the food.


Roasting, truly speaking, is cooking food before an open fire, so that roasting is seldom accomplished in modern kitchens.


Baking is cooking food by dry heat in an inclosed oven. The oven should be very hot when the food is first put in, then the heat reduced.

In baking meats, basting frequently with hot fat will drive the heat to the center and make the meat juicy.


Stewing is cooking food in water kept below the boiling point, and is similar to simmering.


Fricasseeing is a combination of sauteing and simmering. The food is first sauted and then simmered until tender.


Moist steaming is accomplished by placing the food in a perforated dish over a kettle of boiling water and cooking until tender.

Dry steaming is accomplished by placing the food in the top of a double boiler and keeping the water boiling in the lower part until the food is cooked.


Simmering is cooking in water at 185 degrees Fahrenheit or 27 degrees below the point of boiling. This method of cooking is employed where long, slow cooking is desired, as in making stews, soups and so forth; also for cooking tough cuts of meat.

As a rule, in both boiling and simmering, the kettle should be tightly covered.


Braising is a form of cooking generally adopted for cooking tough meats. The food to be braised is placed in a kettle with a few slices of salt pork, some vegetables, seasonings and a small amount of liquid, either water or stock. The kettle is then covered closely and the food cooked until tender. Braising is a long, slow process.


Frying is cooking food in hot fat, deep enough to cover the food. Lard, olive oil, cottolene or drippings may be used. The fat should be heated hot enough to brown a piece of bread a golden brown in forty seconds for cooked food, and in sixty seconds for uncooked food. There are various theories about the digestibility of fried food. The latest seems to be that food properly fried and drained may not be very indigestible. To prepare fat for frying, fill frying kettle one half full, and heat gradually. Avoid frying too much at a time, as the temperature will be reduced and the food much more liable to absorb fat. Reheat fat after each frying. Drain the food on brown paper.


Sauteing is cooking food in a frying pan in a small amount of fat. Food is less digestible cooked in this way than fried food.


Broiling is cooking the food on a greased broiler before hot coals or the gas flame. The broiler should be held very near the flame at first to sear the surface of the food, and should be turned every ten seconds for the first minute of cooking, and afterwards occasionally.

Pan Broiling

Pan broiling is cooking the food in a hissing-hot frying pan without fat. It is employed where it is impossible to broil, and may be better accomplished where two frying pans are used, and the food turned from one to the other every ten seconds for the first minute and afterwards occasionally, as in broiling.

... from the RetroRead library, using Google Book Search, and download any of the books already converted to Kindle format.

Browse the 100 most recent additions to the RetroRead library

Browse the library alphabetically by title

Make books:

Login or register to convert Google epubs to Kindle ebooks



Lost your password?

Not a member yet? Register here, and convert any Google epub you wish

Powerd by Calibre powered by calibre