BLTC Press Titles

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Further Adventures of an Irish R. M.

Edith Somerville and Martin Ross

The Pictorial Key to the Tarot

Arthur Edward Waite

Mortal Coils

Aldous Huxley

Esoteric Buddhism

A. P. Sinnett

Minnesota in Three Centuries, 1655-1908: 1858

by Lucius Frederick Hubbard


dairyman, stock-raiser, fruit-grower, and florist, come

-*■ from God as his gifts through the sunshine and the

rain. To the climate also is due the division of this state in its great regions of forest and prairie, with their diversities of the fauna and flora. Thence came whatever the savage possessed, of game, fish, wild rice, berries, and the products of his rude agriculture, before the white man brought the arts of civilization.

The State of Minnesota, lying at the center of a great continent, has a thoroughly inland climate, with a wide contrast between the prevailingly cold winters and hot summers, but liable to sudden and considerable changes of temperature at any season. Rainfall and snowfall are less than in any of the states farther east, but more than in the Dakotas and other states of the western plains. The air generally contains little moisture, few days are continuously cloudy, and all parts of the year have much sunshine.

Some portions of each winter, for a few days together, or often through several weeks, have very cold temperature, with the mercury of the Fahrenheit thermometer sinking to ten, twenty, or thirty degrees below zero at night, and occasionally not rising so high as to zero at noon of an entirely sunshiny day.


But the dryness of the atmosphere makes such severe cold no more difficult to endure than temperatures twenty to thirty degrees higher in the northern states along our Atlantic coast.

Usually there is no considerable thawing at any time during two or three months of the winter; but sometimes a winter here is quite mild, with many alternations of thawing and freezing weather. The ordinarily scanty snowfall in the greater part of the state, which gives a sheet of snow seldom exceeding a foot in average depth, is likely to serve well, if not too much drifted by gales at the times of its fall, for sleighing and sledding through the whole period of steady cold. This season, too, is more sharply demarked than in most other parts of the United States. It is begun by a sudden cold wave, generally during the first half of November, which freezes the ground and stops the late autumn work of plowing; and the return of warmth in spring is by a sudden transition which rapidly melts away the snow and soon thaws and dries the land sufficiently to prepare it for the seeding of the broad wheat fields.

In the summer there are commonly only a few excessively hot days (80 degrees to 100 degrees F.) in a single heated term, which is preceded and followed by longer terms of agreeable coolness, even at midday. It is also important to note that, however hot the days may be, the nights, almost without exception, through the whole summer are cool and favorable for refreshing sleep. Excepting the few very hot days or weeks of the midsummer, the temperature generally is cool and invigorating through the six or seven months in which the land is worked and the harvest gathered.

During January, the coldest month, the average temperature is about 15 degrees Fahrenheit at the southeast corner of Minnesota; about 12 degrees at St. Paul and Minneapolis, and nearly the same at Duluth; and thence it diminishes northwestward to zero at the Lake of the Woods, and about two degrees below zero at St. Vincent and Pembina, situated on the Red river close to the international boundary.

The warmest month, July, has an average temperature of about 73 degrees along the southern border of this state; 74 degrees at St. Paul and Minneapolis; 68 degrees at Moorhead and Fargo; 65 degrees at St. Vincent; and '64 to 62 degrees in northeastern Minnesota, north of Lake Superior.

For the whole year, the southeast corner of the state has a mean temperature of about 46 degrees; St. Paul and Minneapolis, about 45 degrees; and northern Minnesota, 40 to 35 degrees.


The mean annual precipitation of moisture as rain and snow in Minnesota ranges from about 30 to 20 inches. It is greatest in the southeast corner of the state and in the vicinity of Duluth; at St. Paul and Minneapolis it is about 28 inches; and it is least at the northwest corner of the state.

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