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Paradoxes of the Highest Science

Eliphas Levi

The Worm Ouroboros

E. R. Eddison

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

Lewis Carroll

The Secret Doctrine, Volume II Anthropogenesis

H. P. Blavatsky

On the atonement of christ

by Fran├žois Turretini


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Three Opinions On This Subject.Preliminary Remarks:—1. As To The Nature Of Sin.—2. The Satisfaction Required.—3. The Relations Of God To The Sinner.—4. The Qualifications Of The Substitute,And The Conditions Of Substitution.Arguments To Prove The Necessity Of The Atonement:—L God's VindicaTory Justice.—II. The Nature Of Sin.—III. The Sanction Of The Law.—IV. The Preaching Of The Gospel.—V. The GreatNess Of God's Love.—VI. The Glory Of The Divine PerfecTions.

The Priesthood of Christ, according to the Apostle Paul and the types of the Jewish ritual, is divided into two parts: the atonement which he made to divine justice, and his intercession in heaven, (1 John ii. 2. Heb. ix. 12.) The necessity of such an atonement, which is the foundation of all practical piety and all Christian hopes, must therefore be firmly established, and defended against the fiery darts of Satan, with which it is attacked by innumerable adversaries.

Upon this subject, the opinions of divines may be classed under three heads: 1. That of the Socinians, who not only deny that an atonement was made, but affirm that it was not at all necessary, since God both could and would pardon sin, without any satisfaction made to his justice. 2. That of those who distinguish between an absolute and a hypothetical necessity; and in opposition to the Socinians maintain the latter, while they deny the former. By a hypothetical necessity they mean that which flows from the divine decree. God has decreed that an atonement is to be made, therefore it is necessary. To this they also add a necessity of fitness; as the commands of God have been transgressed, it is fit that satisfaction should be made, that the transgressor may not pass with impunity. Yet they deny that it was absolutely necessary, as God, they say, might have devised some other way of pardon than through the medium of an atonement. This is the ground taken by Augustine in his book on the Trinity. Some of the reformers who wrote before the time of Socinus, adopt the opinions of that father. 3. That of those who maintain its absolute necessity; affirming that God neither has willed, nor could have willed to forgive sins, without a satisfaction made to his justice. This, the common opinion of the orthodox, is our opinion.

Various errors are maintained on this point, by our opponents. The removal of the grounds upon which they rest will throw light upon the whole subject. They err in their views of the nature of sin, for which a satisfaction,is required; of the satisfaction itself; of the character of God to whom it is to be rendered; and of Christ by whom it is rendered.

1. Of sin, which renders us guilty, and binds us over to punishment as hated of God. It may be viewed as a debt which we are bound to pay to divine justice, in which sense the law is called "a hand-writing," (Col. ii. 14:) as a principle of enmity, whereby we hate God and he becomes our enemy: as a crime against the government of the universe by which, before God, the supreme governor and judg%, we become deserving of everlasting death and malediction. Whence, sinners are expressly called " debtors," (Matt, vi. 12); "enemies to God," both actively and passively, (Col. i. 21); "and guilty before God," (Rom. iii. 19.) We, therefore, infer that three things were necessary in order to our redemption; the payment of the debt contracted by sin, the appeasing of the divine wrath, and the expiation of guilt.

2. From the preceding remarks, the nature of the satisfaction which sin requires may be easily perceived. That which we are chiefly to attend to in sin being its criminality, satisfaction has relation to the penalty enacted against it by the Supreme Judge.

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